The encoders on the drum machine keyboard are working now. The missing leads discovered earlier were not the only obstacles I had to overcome. After fixing the circuit, the encoders still didn't work properly. For some reason, I had not thought about what would happen when the encoders stood still and did not have a connection to +5v. This, of course, would lead to floating inputs on the direction-detection flip flops, and no clear readings from the circuit.
I then added 10k pull down resistors to all the inputs, this fixed most of the problems and made it possible to detect encoder clicks.
However, if the encoder is turned slowly, one click of the dial leads to multiple detected clicks, as the circuit keeps outputting clicks, as the flip flops are not reset.
To fix this, I've added a state check in software. Clicks will only lead to events if a 0 has been read in between two reads of 1. This fixes most issues, but quick turns of the dial will in fact give fewer clicks than slowwe turns. Also, I've experienced a few 'backward' clicks in between the forward clicks, not sure what causes this.
But, all in all, things are looking very bright. The mode selection leds light up and respond to the encoder. Now I'll just have to get the rest of the keyboard up and running againg. And fix the head phone amplifier and get a license file for my compiler...